7. The significant meaning of matter’s elementary structure theory from the philosophic aspect.
The theory of matter’s elementary structure will play an essential role in the development of philosophic fundamental theory in the following five ways:
1) It brings up the view that material reality consists of entity and interstice to achieve the unity between forms of matter and non-matter.
2) It expresses the point that matter’s elementary structure as origin of things to realize the unity of concreteness and universality.
3) It claims that material substance has dialectical characteristic to realize the unity of materialism and dialectics on the fundamental level.
4) It brings up the idea that matter’s property and its mode of motion are corresponding to realize the unity between form and content on the fundamental layer.
5) It proposes viewpoints of existence of matter’s disordered and amorphous structure form, and of matter definition based on it to realize the unity of researching fundamental issues of philosophy and physics. The author concluded the aforementioned philosophical viewpoints as dialectical material realism, which is a component of dialectical materialism.
8. Matter’s fundamental structure form and quantum are two different layers of matter structure, so matter’s laws of motion in these two layers are distinguishable.
The author contends that the matter’s elementary structure form can be viewed as the most fundamental layer of matter structure, whereas quantum is formed as the most primitive and ordered layer from this disordered and amorphous layered foundation. Due to their difference, the concepts that are applicable for different layers should not be mixed up. For example, people often mention antimatter while in fact, only quantum has positive or negative concept, not matter; energy and mass are the concept of quantum layer, and the mass of quantum and of material entity are also different notions; the wavelength of quantum wave cannot surpass speed of light, while the transmission of interaction among quantum waves can; the concept of reality property of quantum and of matter are different; under the layer of matter’s elementary structure, the non-causality and indeterminism are the mainstream whereas under the quantum layers, causality and determinism are.
9. Quantum theory is the foundation of macroscopic theory.
The author deems that the ordered and stable-state matter’s mode of motion first formed with quantum’s mode of motion, and then evolved into the object’s mode of motion under the macroscopic physical theory. Quantum is nothing but mysterious, it is only an ordered form of matter that is much simpler and fundamental than macroscopic objects. The quantum theory is the foundation of macroscopic theory; it should be used to explain macroscopic theory, not the other way around. For instance, the total amount of frequency conservation of quantum causes macro-level energy conservation; the character of wave interference of quantum’s tendency for synchronization intrigues the macroscopic wave theorem; quantum mechanics theory is the foundation of macroscopic Hamilton’s principle; quantum unit system is the foundation of classical unit system; quantum theory of relativity is the foundation of classical relativity theory, etc. and not the other way around.
10. The mathematical tools applied in the fundamental part of quantum theory should not be too complicated.
The author believes that the mathematical tools used in the elementary section of the quantum theory should be uncomplicated. It is proven through scientific practices that if only one highly energized photon and one proton exist in the very spacious universe and they collide, a series of quantum physical phenomena can be generated, such as forming of stable-state positive or negative proton or electron, electromagnetic field, nuclear force, and mechanical effect of quantum. These physical phenomena seem convoluted but in fact are quite simple; it is far less complicated than macroscopic phenomena of object collision (not to mention engineering physics phenomena). To depict such elementary, simple, and rudiment physical phenomena, sophisticated mathematics tools should not be used as it does not contain material foundation or necessity for the existence of such math. Succinct physical theorems and equations described by simple math tools are able to illustrate nature’s primordial and fundamental ordered state.
11. The tendency for synchronization effect of quantum wave is an essential feature of quantum wave and is the cause of formation from quantum’s interaction.
The author proposes that the tendency for synchronization of wave interference among quantum is the result of formation among quantum interaction. This point of view treats interaction as a feature of quantum wave; it is the unity of effect of short distance and long distance, as well as the ultimate denial to the action at a distance. This viewpoint is also meaningful in real-world sense; from diffraction, interference, and paramagnetic of compass, to laser, superconductivity, controlled nuclear fusion, entangled state of quantum correlation, etc. all of which are closely relevant to the phenomena of synchronization. Therefore, the tendency for synchronization of wave interference among quanta must be studied with scrutiny during the theoretical and practical researches on quantum theories.
12. The Bose-wave type of interaction exists
The author asserts that if the changes of state of quantum groups are observed, it indicates that the state of individual quantum distinguishable within the groups has changed. For instance, the existence of synchronized coherent light wave phenomenon when light beam goes through pinhole and the diffraction phenomenon when light beam go through barrier must signify the change of state of individual photon. If the change of individual quantum state does occur, it usually results from interaction among quanta. Thus, the author believes that aside from a few discovered elementary interactions, another one - the Bose-wave interaction, must be present. This interaction can elucidate rather rationally to some peculiar behaviors expressed by quantum, such as explanation to diffraction, interference, polarization, and electronic two-slit interference. The interaction of Bose-wave, just like gravitational and electric interaction, has a generation mechanics of tendency for synchronization of wave interference among quantum and is the expression of quantum wave’s basic feature.
13. The locality and non-locality concepts of quantum, along with quantum’s systematic viewpoint, provide new thoughts for unified field theory.
The author states that quantum’s locality and non-locality is unified; quantum’s wave center shows locality whereas quantum’s interaction distance is infinite, which is expressed as non-locality. If we are to conduct an ideal experiment to reduce the mass of the earth and the moon by half, the gravitational equation tells us that they are still related. If such reduction goes on, only one conclusion can be drawn: a proton from the earth and one from the moon are still related; even with further distance, the idea still applies, which indicates that quantum’s non-locality does exist. Any individual quantum exists in the form of wave, but no matter belongs specifically to this quantum. The quantum system has been formed through ether structure by its interaction. Any space region in our concrete universe can be the interaction space by infinite quantum, or the components of them, even without the existence of any quantum’s undulating center, or so-called “no existence of particle”.
Unified field theories under quantum’s systematic viewpoint:
1) Quantum field is a part of quantum; there is no special field matter because particle and field are unified; in other words, particle and its “background” are unified;
2) It is not necessary to set up particles with transmitting interaction for quantum field;
3) Quantum system is the integration of all kinds of quantum fields rather than individual activity areas for each field, and it is an interactive “systematic world” instead of “multiple worlds”;
4) The wavelength of quantum wave cannot surpass speed of light, but the interaction among quantum waves can;
5) Gravitational field and electric field are two of the most fundamental fields;
6) Magnetic field is an adjustment to electric field;
7) Nuclear force is not equipped with long distance effect, so it should be deemed a special expression of electric field;
Weak force also does not possess the feature of long distance effect, and even with short distance the effect is exposed to uncertainty, therefore it can only be considered as a peculiar expression of other effects.
14. Quantum Relativity Theory
The author thinks that absoluteness is an indispensible and critical content for the theory of relativity. The hypothesis of unchanged speed of light in the special theory of relativity is in deed an intense absolute nature as it clearly predicts ether’s existence. Einstein’s general theory of relativity introduced the concept of space-time curvature. As matter is the basis for space-time, its foundation must be uniformed and flat because it is the only condition for the appearance of the concept of relative curvature. Thus, the broad and balanced matter’s foundation of the general theory of relativity demonstrates strong absoluteness, which is the ether structure characterized by its uniformity and systematic property from the matter’s elementary structure form.
The manifestation shown by quantum wave within the ether structure is called quantum state. Under certain condition, this quantum state exists absolutely, but it can only be expressed during the interaction, which has the nature of variety and relativity just like the expression form of quantum state. The special theory of relativity studies the expression way at quantum’s absolute state during the interaction; therefore it can be called quantum’s relativity theory. It is a component of the quantum theory and the foundation of the classical relativity theory.
15. Matter’s elementary structure theory is compatible with quantum mechanics.
The author claims that compatibility exists between matter’s elementary structure theory and the quantum mechanics:
1) The probability explanation of quantum mechanics to wave function is correct; due to probability’s own gauge property, there is a regular and decisive factor that exists behind it.
2) Inside the wave equation or wave function, if wave function is normalized to reflect “real” factors such as “journey” and “orbit”, but at the same time the restricted condition is also taken into consideration, quantum reality’s wave motion can then be described.
3) Because of the real wave property demonstrated during quantum’s motion (not just the simple linear motion), if interaction occurs, it will depend on the effect of uncertainty brought by waves to determine whether it can be expressed (i.e. interference or diffraction) or measured (i.e. hitting the screen), which is the probability of occurrence. The probability of quantum and principle of uncertainty is induced by the same mechanism, which is quantum’s undulation period;
4) Probability expressed by wave function reflects quantum’s probability of occurrence during a certain time at a certain location. Thus, if certain opportunity of quantum’s appearance can be calculated, it shows that the moving orbit is likely to have been there. Quantum’s both historical and current states are real; although the trend of changes for the future is uncertain, the state in the future is real, too.
5) Matter’s elementary structure theory regards that the superposition of quantum probability amplitude demonstrated by the wave function is the essence of quantum mechanics; it has solid foundation of quantum reality, which is the tendency for synchronization of wave interference among quantum waves.
16. Elementary quantum and compound quantum
The author asserts that each individual quantum is an independently existing quantum wave, and each quantum wave (including Bose-wave) is independent and distinguishable. The shape of quantum waves can be applied to differentiate among Bose-wave (photon), positive Fermi-wave (proton or positron) and negative Fermi-wave (antiproton or electron). Due to synchronous vibration, the only stable states of Fermi-wave are proton and electron, so there are only five elementary forms of quantum waves: photon, proton, antiproton, electron, and positron (i.e. antielectron). These five types of quantum waves are called elementary quantum, while others are called compound quantum. Compound quantum is not a pure accumulation of elementary quanta but a closely compacted aggregation through synchronous vibration by elementary quantum. Numerous unstable “particles” discovered during scientific experiments are compound quanta, which are the expression way of elementary quantum (or the nascent generation period of elementary quantum)’s synchronous vibration.
17. The foundation of quantum stable state’s formation is the nature’s constants.
The author contends that the property of quantum’s stable state is primarily demonstrated as consistency, such as consistent wave velocity and stable frequency, and then developed into quantitative property, such as the law of universal gravitation from the gravitational field, Coulomb’s Law from the electric field, set amount of mass for proton, electron, or for other unstable particles within a certain period of time. The development progress of quantum’s stable state is the transformation of matter’s elementary structure form from random to order.
The author proposes that quantum’s stable state is determined by nature’s constants. They are randomly formed in our finite universe due to historical reason, which has been a stable physical phenomenon in wide-ranging space for an extensive period of time. People should discover and study the nature’s constants, but they should not entangle themselves with their reasons for existence as it is merely the philosophy of nature, and the existence is a simple fact. “Everything should be rooted by facts” is the foundation of scientific research. The nature’s constants determine the consistency and quantitative property of quantum.
The author mentions six fundamental constants:
1) Speed of light c = 2.99792458×108m/s;
2) Circumference ratio: π =3.1415926, zero dimension，or: m/m;
3) Square coefficient of frequency’s vertical amplitude: p = 7.72385684262854× 10－54m2•s (a hypothetical constant, which has close relationship with Fermi-wave frequency’s stable state of nuclear force and proton);
4) Square coefficient of frequency’s rotational amplitude: q = 4.77003674569× 10-44m2 s (a hypothetical constant, which has close relationship with Fermi-wave frequency’s stable state of nuclear force and electron);
5) Gravitational constant G = 6.87824803094×10-77 m•s (quantum’s system of unit; the denominator of the gravitational formula is represented in terms of surface area of a sphere);
6) Fine structure constant: α = 0.00729735308 cycles/e2; it will infer the constant of electric field force (permittivity of vacuum of reciprocal) 1/ =2 ac.
The author asserts that these constants can serve as constraining factors and the feature of tendency for synchronization among quantum waves as driven factor to explain physical phenomena, including the stable states of gravitational field, electric field, nuclear force, proton’s Fermi frequency, electron’s Fermi frequency, and the total frequency stable-state of some unstable particles. For instance, the issue of stable states of proton and electron can be explained: firstly they are both Fermi-wave; it is the basis for their unity and their mutual and most fundamental stable state; secondly, the different wave forms differentiate their positive and negative property, which is the positive and negative electric property; thirdly, different nature’s constants (square coefficient of frequency’s vertical wave amplitude p and square coefficient of frequency’s rotation wave amplitude q) result in various synchronous vibration due to the same equal distance among wavelength, amplitude, and quantum. When frequency stabilizes at certain values, the features of stable states of proton and electron appear. It explains the commonly discussed problem of origin of particle’s mass as it is the expression form of quantum wave’s frequency; and the origin of quantum mass is frequency characteristic of quantum wave, which is the result of the constraining force of nature’s constants expressed during quantum’s synchronous vibration. Such force is so called the fundamental reason for spontaneous broken on symmetry.
18. New Viewpoints of nuclear force and nuclear structure
The author believes that atomic nucleus and neutron should be considered as compound quantum of proton and electron, and the electric field’s non-linear character in the form of proton-electron-proton co-vibration as the source for nuclear force with attraction inside the nucleus; the electron acts as “gluon”.
Some might mention that it is not a novel viewpoint to consider atomic nucleus as a compound entity of proton and electron, which was already brought up in the 30s of last century and served as a main theory regarding nuclear structure; but it was then replaced by the latter theory (which is referred to as traditional theory here). The traditional theory got rid of electron from the nucleus and established the concept of neutron, which consequently was discovered during laboratory tests. The traditional theory claims that electron does not exist inside the nucleus for the following reasons: firstly, according to the stable-state theory of atom and the uncertainty principle of the quantum theory, it is not possible for the electrons surrounding proton to “fall into” it; secondly, the sum of mass from proton and electron is less than that of neutron; that is to say, when electron enters into the “proton stack”, the total mass (i.e. energy and frequency) of atomic nucleus increases, which can not be explained by the general compound structure theory. The bonding of compound structure indicates that it possesses bounding energy, which should be consumed rather than attained during the process; thirdly, the spin of proton and electron is 1/2, so no plausible explanation can be given regarding why spin of neutron is also 1/2 after proton and electron amalgamate into neutron.
Under these circumstances, the author still proposes these new viewpoints of nuclear force and nuclear structure based on the following reasons:
1) The scientific experiments demonstrated that the nucleus, stable due to strong attraction, is always composed of both proton and neutron. The situation of two protons (or two neutrons) forming nucleus directly through nuclear power has never been discovered, the phenomenon of which can not be elucidated by the simple stability of magic number. Laboratory tests showed that the existence of electron (consider neutron as compound quantum) is the prerequisite condition for the formation of nuclear force with attraction among protons. Therefore, the topic of whether the nuclear force with attraction exists among protons with same electric property deserves more effort of study.
2) Scientific experiments showed that the collision among hadrons with the same electric property (i.e. proton, neutron, hyperon, or other baryon) can generate different effects than collision with lepton (i.e. electron). Most of them are obvious repellent nuclear force.
3) Based on the traditional theory, the nuclear force among protons is expressed as attraction in certain distance, while closer distance intrigues repulsion and further distance indicates the dramatically decline of interaction. In order to explain the mechanism of this force, the theory has to assume that the transmissible particle of this force also possess this mechanism. If we can image nuclear force having non-linear character, one with singular curve, why can’t we picture the existence of non-linear character for electric field force under certain condition? After all, this curve of non-linear character is much simpler.
4）The traditional theory asserts that the nuclear force presents among protons (including proton and antiproton, or neutron) are “charge unrelated”. It is difficult to comprehend the consistency of the nuclear force with attraction between protons possessing opposite and same electric charge property.
5) The lab experiments already proved neutron to be uncharged, making its most possible magnetic moment be zero; however, it is 6.030774827×10-8e•m2/s (unit system of quantum) instead, which means that although the neutron as a whole is uncharged, the electric charge distribution similar to proton exist internally. Since structure homogeneity of proton and neutron exist, we must look for the mutual foundation of them, and such logic will lead to the idea that neutron is a type of compound quantum.
6) According to the simplicity principle required by matter’s elementary structure theory, it is quite difficult to construct stable form of quantum waves other than photon, proton, and electron; it is equally difficult to build other force fields besides gravitational and electric fields.
7) Theories from the 30s in the 20th century kicked electron out of the nucleus by offering some reasons to deny the existence of electron inside the nucleus, which might not exist anymore under the explanation of matter’s elementary structure theory. The theory brings up the idea that atomic nucleus is compound quantum; it is the interaction among elementary quantum rather than the merely accumulation of them inside the nucleus, and that adjustment should be made for law of atom’s layers. For instance, the electric stable state within atom should be adjusted under the nuclear force formed by non-linear character of electric field. The uncertainty principle of the quantum theory insists that it is not feasible for electrons around proton to “drop into” it. Nevertheless, under the circumstance of nuclear force, especially when it exists between proton and electron, the frequency of Bose-wave of them increase while wavelength shorten; in addition, because of the unity of opposites relationship between locality and non-locality of quantum wave, the domains of electron and proton are in fact overlapped and integrated, so it is not impossible for proton and electron to coexist with tremendous attraction in extremely close proximity. Since the environment of compound quantum has changed, the way of interaction of quantum also has, so the intranuclear motion can be adopted to explain why the mass of neutron is larger than the sum of mass of proton and electron.
The issue of spin is the most difficult issue for this hypothesis, so research should be conducted on problem of spin synthesis at quantum’s resonance state.
19．A tight relationship exists between matter’s elementary structure theory and the significant scientific practice in the real life
Matter’s elementary structure theory, firstly might be seen as pure theoretical, is indeed possessing strong practical foundation. It brings out the ideas that the ordered forms of proton and electron are not everlasting; and that the practical foundation is human’s experiments on decomposition of matter structure to prove the diminishing types of ordered structure, which inevitably lead to the viewpoint that the ordered forms are developed from the disordered ones. It touches the issue of ether structure, the practical foundation of which is the experiments on force’s transmissible ability to prove that any transmission of force must be carried out by matter, and the undulating phenomenon must be the mode of motion for medium of matter. In addition, the experiments on invariability of speed of light, the physical laws at an extensive region for a long period of time, as well as the implied concept of flat space-time in the general theory of relativity, offer proofs for the symmetry and homogeneity of matter structure at a relatively broad universal region. The concept of quantum wave is also brought up, and the practical foundations are the energy and frequency conservation relationship, law of energy conservation, relationship between mass and energy expressed by Planck’s Constant and the validity of de Broglie wave, all of which were validated by various scientific tests. The idea of nuclear force is originated from electric field force with non-linear character, and its practical foundation is the fact that no direct nuclear force with attraction can be found among protons, and that the number of nucleus is more than that of electric quantity within the atomic nucleus other than hydrogen.
Matter’s elementary structure theory recognizes all related scientific experiments, and places these theories on solid practical foundation. If this theory is proven to be valid, it will bring new thoughts for the solutions of numerous practical questions in the real world:
The unit system of quantum provides a simple and effective tool for the physical teaching and research, and it plays a crucial role to disclose the internal relationship among quantum physical phenomena. To comprehend quantum mechanics by matter’s elementary structure theory; the reality property of quantum returns to the quantum theory while acknowledging the probability of quantum motion and the indeterminism and non-causality. This will offer real material foundation for research on quantum structure and applied research on quantum physics. The viewpoints of locality and non-locality of quantum, as well as quantum’s systematic property, provide new train of thought for the research on unified field theory. The point of view of Bose interaction will assist with all types of quantum’s unique behaviors such as interference, diffraction, polarization, superposition of state, and wave-particle duality. Under the concept of quantum theory of relativity, the absoluteness of quantum state will be recognized and its relative expression form and laws will be disclosed profoundly during its interaction, which will be beneficial for studying quantum’s motion in high velocity, non-linear character of interaction, and changing mode of frequency components of Bose-wave and Fermi-wave triggered by interaction. Under the concepts of non-linear character of the electric field, the new nuclear force and structure, and the elementary quantum and compound quantum, new thoughts in terms of particle research of physics will be provided. The concept of quantum’s superluminal transmission effect will provide insights for researches on quantum’s entangled-state, its information, and its computation. The interaction among quanta is originated from the tendency for synchronization of wave interference of quantum wave, and it will provide certain aids for the development of quantum physical technology, especially to its unique structure such as super synchronization state and super condensation state. To study cosmology within the context of matter’s elementary structure theory, one can better coordinate the relationship between the symmetry and uniformity of the universe and the heterogeneity of distribution of matter’s mass in the universe, which will provide more thoughtful explanations for the big bang, dark energy, background radiation, and the black hole phenomena.
20. Matter’s elementary structure theory and traditional theory have relatively good compatibility and inheritability.
Matter’s elementary structure theory and traditional theory have relatively good compatibility and inheritability. All traditional theories that are able to provide reasonable explanations to scientific experiments are the theoretical foundation for matter’s elementary structure theory, which is integrated into the quantum theory. The author proposed this theory with the attempt to better explain the physical phenomena and the result of scientific experiments, rather than just for the sake of argument. This theory only touches some fundamental and simple issues in physics; if the main points in this theory are proven correct, people will realize that the quantum theory (including the relativity theory, as well as string theory and cosmology theory which are still under development) is not threatened in anyway but becomes richer and more completed.
The author hopes that this theory of matter’s elementary structure can succeed as a new thinking pattern and become an innovative scientific theory, which in term contributes to the development of physics and philosophy to some extent. Regardless of its success, it should still be a beneficial act to raise some questions, provide some solutions, and pave an unexploited road. As these are viewpoints that no one has ever mentioned before, it will undoubtedly generate different opinions when comparing with the traditional theories. For the inevitable limitations or flaws surfaced from this article, the author welcomes critics and corrections from experts, scholars, and other readers.
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